A crawler, also known as a spider or bot, is a software program used by search engines to scan the internet and index web pages. Crawlers work by following links from one page to another, and gathering information about the content, structure, and metadata of each page they visit. Crawlers play a critical role in search engine optimization (SEO), as they are responsible for discovering and indexing new pages and content. Website owners can use various techniques to control crawler access to their site, including the use of robots.txt files and XML sitemaps.

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